L4 Lesson 12

Module

Vocabulary Anagram

Reading

Al Capone

Al Capone’s Vault

On April 21, 1986, television viewers in the United States all tuned in to witness one of the greatest and most successful events in television history. The host, Geraldo Rivera, opened the sealed, underground vaults of the infamous gangster, Al Capone, who had operated his illegal empire from the penthouse suite of the Lexington Hotel in downtown Chicago during the 1920’s. The program was a failure. It was also a really big success. The show was watched by 30% of all families in America and it kept millions of eyes fixed on the television commercials that are the real reason we have television.

Grammar

Possessives

Understand

Possessives and how to use them!

What is a possessive word?

possessive word is a word that shows who or what something belongs to. For example, in the phrase Sarah’s dogSarah‘s is a possessive word because it tells us the dog belongs to Sarah. In the phrase monkey’s officemonkey’s is a possessive word. It tells us the office belongs to the monkey.

monkeysoffice

Let’s look at another example. Let’s say Gerard owns this house. It’s Gerard’s house.

gerard'shouse
house

Gerard’s is a possessive word. The apostrophe and the S at the end of Gerard’s tells people the house belongs to Gerard.

Remember

You probably know that instead of saying Gerard's house you could say his house. Words like his, her, our, their, and your tell you who something belongs to, but they don't get an apostrophe. They don't even get an apostrophe if they end in S, like his, hers, ours, yours, or theirs..

Possessive words about more than one owner

Let’s go back to the monkey’s officeYou know the apostrophe and the S mean the office belongs to the monkey. But what if more than one monkey owns the office? Just add an apostrophe to the end of the possessive word, like this: the monkeys’ office. This tells people the office belongs to more than one monkey.

pluralmonkeys

Here’s another example. If you want to write about the teacher who belongs to a group of students, you would write the students’ teacherThe apostrophe by itself at the end of the word tells people the teacher belongs to more than one student.

Remember

Notice that the apostrophe doesn't change places based on how many things the owners have. It only changes based on how many owners there are. For example, look at the difference between girls' boyfriends and girl's boyfriends.

girls bfs new

Plural words that don't end in S

Plural words (words that talk about more than one thing) in English usually end with an S, but some words are exceptions to this rule, like children and miceWhen a plural word that doesn’t end in S is also a possessive word, just add an apostrophe and an S at the end. For example, if toys belong to a group of children, you would write the children’s toys.

children's toys

If you wanted to write about the holes that belong to a few mice, you’d write the mice’s holes.

Explore Five Types of Possessives

Suffixes

By adding an apostrophe “s” after nouns, we show possession.

Examples:

  • The dog’s tail is long.
  • The women’s hats are big and beautiful.
  • We went to the children’s store.
  • We like to spend other people’s money.

Of

We use “of” to show possession. 

Incorrect: Japan’s capital

Correct: The capital of Japan

Incorrect: The tree’s leaves

Correct: The leaves of the tree

Incorrect: The man’s name

Correct: The name of the man

Double Possessive

Sometimes we can use double possessives, like a friend of mine.

Both “of” and “mine” show possession.

Examples:

  • He was a friend of mine.
  • No shirt of his is clean.
  • This is a portrait of Mary’s.

Time, Distance, Weight, Price

We use apostrophes to show how possession related to time, distance, weight, and price.

Examples:

It is all in a day’s work.

It is a hundred meter’s distance to the 7-11.

I bought a kilogram’s weight of  sugar.

I have a dollar’s worth of candy.

Omit Second Noun

If we already know the object of the sentence, we can omit the second noun.

Examples:

  • This pen is John’s pen. -> This pen is John’s.
  • We went to the doctor’s office. -> We went to the doctor’s.
  • The party was at John’s house. -> The party was at John’s.

Understand? Now it's your turn

Pronunciation

Past Tense Pronunciation for Regular Verbs Pronunciation of ED

ED Pronunciation! Learn useful rules for Pronunciation of ED ending (Past Tense Pronunciation for Regular Verbs) in English.

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Let's Practice

Regular Verbs

The regular verb is one which conforms to the normal grammar rules surrounding the use of verbs. In English, there are a huge amount of regular verbs, and its important to know what these are and the rules that they follow. This will help you to ensure that your sentences are grammatically correct and easy to understand.

In the English language, most regular verbs are turned into the past tense by adding ‘-ed’ to the end of a base form of the verb.

Regular verbs examples:

  • Wait → Waited
  • Want → Wanted
  • Ask → Asked
  • Wash → Washed
  • Cook → Cooked
  • Walk → Walked
  • Hunt → Hunted
  • Adopt → Adopted

Learn more about Irregular verbs that do not follow the above rules.

For past tense pronunciation for regular verbs, the final -ed ending has three different pronunciations: /t/, /d/, and /id/.

Pronunciation of ED | The /t/ Sound

Past Tense Pronunciation Rules:

  • Final -ed is pronounced /t/ after all voiceless sounds.
  • Voiceless sounds are made by pushing air through your mouth; no sound comes from your throat.
  • Voiceless consonant sounds: p, f, k, s, sh, ch, th

Past Tense Pronunciation Examples with regular verbs list.

In this section, we are going to be presenting you with a comprehensive list of the regular verbs which can be found within the English language.

  • Announce → Announced
  • Cook → Cooked
  • Walk → Walked
  • Talk → Talked
  • Finish → Finished
  • Type → Typed
  • Dance → Danced
  • Watch → Watched
  • Look → Looked
  • Miss → Missed
  • Rush → Rushed
  • Hope → Hoped
  • Wish → Wished
  • Dress → Dressed
  • Practice → Practiced
  • Cough → Coughed
  • Help → Helped
  • Develop → Developed
  • Knock → Knocked
  • Snatch → Snatched
  • Step → Stepped
  • Punish → Punished
  • Hush (up) → Hushed (up)
  • Mix (up) → Mixed (up)
  • Wrap → Wrapped
  • Stalk → Stalked
  • Fish → Fished
  • Slap → Slapped
  • Force → Forced
  • Discuss → Discussed
  • Hitchhike → Hitchhiked
  • Laugh → Laughed
  • Brush → Brushed
  • Crash → Crashed
  • Work → Worked
  • Like → Liked
  • Attack → Attacked
  • Lock → Locked
  • Stop → Stopped
  • Ask → Asked
  • Wash → Washed
  • Brake → Braked
  • Escape → Escaped
  • Kiss → Kissed
  • Trip → Tripped
  • Jump → Jumped
  • Promise → Promised
  • Slip → Slipped
  • Touch → Touched
  • Fix → Fixed
  • Pip → Ripped
  • Check → Checked
  • Pluck → Plucked
  • Coax → Coaxed
  • Rehearse → Rehearsed
  • Curse → Cursed
  • Jinx → Jinxed
  • Banish → Banished
  • Dunk → Dunked
  • Push → Pushed
  • Fake → Faked
  • Flush → Flushed
  • Back (up) → Backed (up)
  • Place → Placed
  • Reduce → Reduced

ED Pronunciation | The /d/ Sound

Pronunciation of ED Rules:

  • Final -ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds.
  • The /d/ is blended together with the previous consonant and not pronounced as an extra syllable.
  • Voiced sounds come from your throat. Touch your neck when you make a voiced sound, you can feel your voice box vibrate.
  • Voiced consonant sounds: b, v, g, z, j, th, l, m, n, r
  • All vowel sounds are voiced.

ED Pronunciation Examples with regular verbs list.

  • Live → Lived
  • Climb → Climbed
  • Phone → Phoned
  • Wave → Waved
  • Arrive → Arrived
  • Clear → Cleared
  • Study → Studied
  • Open → Opened
  • Enjoy → Enjoyed
  • Copy → Copied
  • Mail → Mailed
  • Call → Called
  • Borrow → Borrowed
  • Hurry → Hurried
  • Sign → Signed
  • Play → Played
  • Carry → Carried
  • Move → Moved
  • Pull → Pulled
  • Wonder → Wondered
  • Kill → Killed
  • Marry → Married
  • Believe → Believed
  • Beg → Begged
  • Prefer → Preferred
  • Tease → Teased
  • Close → Closed
  • Accuse → Accused
  • Stroll → Strolled
  • Shrug → Shrugged
  • Praise → Praised
  • Follow → Followed
  • Bog down → Bogged down
  • Encourage → Encouraged
  • Listen → Listened
  • Tour → Toured
  • Consider → Considered
  • Travel → Traveled
  • Stay → Stayed
  • Rescue → Rescued
  • Happen → Happened
  • Destroy → Destroyed
  • Refuse → Refused
  • Die → Died
  • Belittle → Belittled
  • Question → Questioned
  • Discover → Discovered
  • Argue → Argued
  • Try → Tried
  • Cry → Cried
  • Lie → Lied
  • Use → Used
  • Clean → Cleaned
  • Love → Loved
  • Design → Designed
  • Change → Changed
  • Join → Joined
  • Grab → Grabbed
  • Seem → Seemed
  • Explain → Explained
  • Rob → Robbed
  • Continue → Continued
  • Hire → Hired
  • Store → Stored
  • Heal → Healed
  • Foster → Fostered
  • Learn → Learned
  • Sue → Sued
  • Harm → Harmed

Past Tense Pronunciation for Regular Verbs | The /id/ Sound

Final -ed is pronounced /id/ after “T”, and “D” sounds. The sound /id/ adds a whole syllable to a word.

Pronunciation of ED Examples with regular verbs list.

  • Suggest → Suggested
  • Vote → Voted
  • Wait → Waited
  • Want → Wanted
  • Shout → Shouted
  • Hunt → Hunted
  • Adopt → Adopted
  • Emigrate → Emigrated
  • Start → Started
  • Visit → Visited
  • Investigate → Investigated
  • Attend → Attended
  • Affect → Affected
  • Chat → Chatted
  • Heat → Heated
  • Sort → Sorted
  • Regret → Regretted
  • Waste → Wasted
  • Interrupt → Interrupted
  • Mind → Minded
  • Sound → Sounded
  • Count → Counted
  • Demand → Demanded
  • Hesitate → Hesitated
  • Proceed → Proceeded
  • Succeed → Succeeded
  • Accept → Accepted
  • Paint → Painted
  • Contact → Contacted
  • Hate → Hated
  • Include → Included
  • Land → Landed
  • Need → Needed
  • Recommend → Recommended
  • End → Ended
  • Grade → Graded
  • Rate → Rated
  • Hesitate → Hesitated
  • Decide → Decided
  • Interest → Interested
  • Trade → Traded
  • Last → Lasted
  • Insist → Insisted
  • Avoid → Avoided
  • State → Stated
  • Taste → Tasted
  • Admit → Admitted
  • Invent → Invented
  • Create → Created
  • Compete → Competed
  • Intend → Intended
  • Concoct → Concocted
  • Request → Requested
  • Disregard → Disregarded
  • Assist → Assisted
  • Ground → Grounded
  • Lift → Lifted
  • Overreact → Overreacted
  • Bound → Bounded
  • Pretend → Pretended
  • Twist → Twisted
  • Cheat → Cheated
  • Outsmart → Outsmarted
  • Disappoint → Disappointed
  • Scold → Scolded
  • Mistreat → Mistreated
  • Attempt → Attempted
  • Coexist → Coexisted

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